Spain: with the exception of Madrid (cold) and the north (very grey and wet), southern Spain is generally a warm and pleasant 15C (59F) in November but also one of the wettest months of the year though you may also expect 5 or 6 hours of sunshine daily, so it doesn’t rain for very long.
The best bet for a dry-ish cultural experience in November is in Andalusia in the south, visiting the magical Moorish cities of Seville, Cordoba and Granada, where the days are warm and the nights coolish, as well as Malaga and Cadiz cities that don’t depend on beaches for tourism.
Barcelona too is a lively, fascinating city – spiced up by weird Gaudi architecture, though it may well be chilly and/or wet in November.
Portugal: November and December are Lisbon’s wettest months but you can expect a few hours of sunshine every day and high temperatures around 15C. Try the pleasant old-fashioned atmospheres of Lisbon, Sintra and Evora.
• The French Riviera has decent daytime temperatures of about 17C (63F) in November, but is statistically the second wettest month of the year though you may also expect 5 or 6 hours of sunshine daily – in other words it doesn’t rain for very long. Again, swimming is not comfortable but people do swim to show they can.
• Italy: The southern part of Italy has generally mild Novembers with limited rain, so Rome (high temperatures 18C/64F), Pompeii, Herculaneum and Sicily are excellent cultural targets, while Amalfi takes good care of those who need a scenic uplift.